Low Impact Development (LID)
Low Impact Development (LID), also known as green infrastructure, is a stormwater management approach that maintains natural hydrology during site development. LID minimizes impervious surfaces and utilizes existing natural site features along with conservational controls to manage stormwater. In LID, stormwater is viewed as a resource rather than a waste product, and the site is developed with this key concept in mind. Often, LID replaces traditional stormwater management practices that focus on moving stormwater off-site with curbs, pipes, and ditches.
LID is useful for creating functional, attractive, and environmentally friendly residential, commercial, and industrial sites, and is both sustainable and cost-effective. Some of the benefits include improved water and air quality, reduced stormwater runoff volume, increased natural habitat and recreational space, increased property values, improved groundwater recharge, and community beautification. Some key design elements of LID include rain gardens, green roofs, permeable pavement, grassed swales, bioretention basins, disconnected impervious surfaces, alternative street design, stormwater bump outs, sidewalk planters, tree boxes, and rain barrels.